DRUG TESTING (US SUPREME COURT)
In 1991, seventh grader James Acton challenged the drug-testing program initiated by his school in
The Supreme Court ruled 6-3 that the students' Fourth Amendment rights were outweighed by the school's interest in fighting drugs. The court said that since student athletes shower and change clothes in front of each other, urine testing wasn't a big invasion of privacy. And because athletes served as "role models" for the student community, it was important for them to be drug free.
An important dissent was written by former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. She expressed her concern that the court had thrown out the Fourth Amendment by doing away with the requirement that there had to be "individualised suspicion" the suspicion that an individual had done something wrong in order to search that person.
The Supreme Court ruling opened the door for schools to institute drug-testing programs for after school sports programs.
Listen to the oral arguments: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1990-1999/1994/1994_94_590