Attitudes towards immigrants
By the time of World War I, programs of "Americanization" were introduced into schools and other institutions. These were designed to instill patriotic principles and American values in newcomers who might otherwise, it was feared, by open to "radical ideas."
Early attempts to "Americanize" immigrants revolved around teaching them English and giving them a grounding in civic education. The "Americanization Day" which was held on July 4, 1915 used the slogan: "Many Peoples, One Nation."
By the end of the war, immigrants who refused to "assimilate" could be accused of disloyalty and face deportation.
The Lusk Committee on Seditious Activities, which was set up by the
Other state legislatures passed laws requiring non English speakers to attend Americanization classes. By 1919, 15 states had decreed that English must be the sole language of instruction in all primary schools, even private ones.
It was during this period that the Pledge of Allegiance became compulsory in many schools. The Pledge was written by Frances Bellamy, a Baptist minister who had been forced out of his
Find out what Francis Bellamy had in mind when he drafted the Pledge: http://history.vineyard.net/pledge.htm